Many South Africans thought that Mandela died overnight on 26 June after he was removed from his life support. CNN also reported that Mandela died, but later fixed the report soon afterwards. Mandela died on 5 December at his home at Houghton Estate , Johannesburg from complications of a respiratory tract infection , aged On 6 December, Zuma announced a national mourning for ten days. Mandela's body lay in state from 11 to 13 December at the Union Buildings in Pretoria. A state funeral was held on Sunday 15 December in Qunu.
On 28 June Mandela's family were arguing about where to bury Mandela. This made Mandela the first non-British person to be honored at Westminster Abbey. Mandela has been portrayed in movies and television. By the time of his death, Mandela had come to be widely considered "the father of the nation" within South Africa. Margaret Thatcher attracted international attention for describing the ANC as "a typical terrorist organization" in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Mandela disambiguation. His Excellency. Evelyn Ntoko Mase m. Winnie Madikizela m. Activist Politician Philanthropist Lawyer. Main article: Death and state funeral of Nelson Mandela.
Underground activity and the Rivonia Trial
Play media. Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 14 January The Guardian. Retrieved 6 December Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 21 August Short Biography. Retrieved 14 September Nelson Mandela. Retrieved 13 August Barnes and Noble. Notable Biographies. Retrieved 22 August BBC News.
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Then Again. Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 14 August Hello Magazine. Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 28 October World History Project. Retrieved 1 August The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 June The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 February Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 3 February Independent Online.
Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 27 October Archived from the original on 14 June South African. Retrieved 10 August The Star. New York Post. New York Daily News. Fox News. Retrieved 5 July USA Today. Retrieved 1 September In the course of the campaign thousands of volunteers served harsh prison terms, but Mandela was instructed not to break the law or court arrest to ensure that the campaign would not be rendered leaderless should all the leaders be imprisoned at the same time.
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He was nevertheless arrested on several occasions during the course of the campaign and released after short stints in jail. At the height of the Defiance Campaign, the ANC recognised the likelihood that the organisation would be banned as the Communist Party had been three years earlier. Asked by the ANC executive to devise a contingency plan for such an eventuality, Mandela drew up what became known as the 'M Plan' , which provided for the creation of street-based cell structures.
This structure would provide more security and secrecy for the organisation in the event of the banning. We took up the attitude that we would stick to non-violence only insofar as the conditions permitted that. Our approach was to empower the organization to be effective in its leadership. And if the adoption of non-violence gave it that effectiveness, that efficiency, we would pursue non-violence. But if the condition shows that non-violence was not effective, we would use other means. In December , Tambo joined Mandela as a partner in his legal practice - the first African-run legal partnership in the country.
During the next two years Mandela and Tambo worked together in their legal practice defending hundreds of people affected by apartheid laws.
Their practice became very successful. During the same month Mandela and 19 other leading congress alliance activists were arrested and charged under the Suppression of Communism Act. Mandela, like all the others, was sentenced to nine months imprisonment with hard labour, suspended for three years. He was also served with a banning order that prohibited him from attending gatherings for six months and from leaving the Johannesburg magisterial district.
Mandela with Moses Kotane outside the Old Synagogue, Pretoria, on the day when the last of the accused were finally acquitted. Although Mandela was officially the deputy national president of the ANC, he was not legally allowed to play any role in ANC activities because of his banning order. In this way, he was able to play a key role in the planning of all the major campaigns after The ANC-led Alliance called off the Defiance Campaign at the end of after the government passed new legislation proposing very harsh sentences for people breaking apartheid laws.
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One of the most important Congress Alliance campaigns was the Freedom Charter campaign. Mandela along with his banned colleagues Dr.
The campaign culminated in the convening of the historic Congress of the People on th June in Kliptown near Soweto. However Mandela, Sisulu and Ahmed Kathrada could not attend the conference because their banning orders prohibited their participation. They viewed the proceedings of the Kliptown conference from the rooftop of a nearby Indian-owned shop. At the end of , while Mandela was imprisoned for two weeks, Evelyn Mase, his wife, moved out of their home. This tension between the two was further exacerbated by the tragic death of their second child, Makaziwe, of meningitis at 9 months olds, in They were subsequently divorced in Mandela was one of African, Indian, Coloured and White men and women leaders in the Congress Alliance who were arrested and charged with treason, following a police raid in December For four-and-a-half years the Treason Trial dragged on with charges being periodically withdrawn against some of the accused.
In , half way through the trial, Mandela married Nomzamo Winifred Madikizela , a social worker 16 years younger than him, from Bizana in the Transkei. In March , Justice Rumpff found Mandela and the remaining 36 accused not guilty and discharged them. In , with the Treason Trial still in progress, the ANC planned an anti-pass law campaign to begin on 31 March As such, those who advocated an Africanist stance, split from the ANC in , with Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe elected as its first president.
The PAC called for mass peaceful anti-pass protests on 21 March Heavily armed police outside a police station in the small southern Transvaal township of Sharpeville opened fire on a peaceful gathering of protesters killing 69 people and wounding more than others, many of whom were shot in the back as they fled.
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The Sharpeville Massacre changed the face of South African politics as on 30 March , the government declared a state of emergency. Mandela and other political activists across all liberation movements were detained as a result of this. The banning of political organisations and the shutting down of space for political protest prompted Mandela to begin seriously thinking about the armed struggle. The discussion to take up arms against the apartheid regime was also being discussed independently by activists detained under the emergency regulations as well as some leaders who had gone underground across all the remaining anti-apartheid groupings.
The underground Communist Party had already smuggled a small group of people out of the country to receive military training in China. With the release of political detainees, Mandela immediately became involved in discussions about convening a national convention. He was made secretary of the organising committee of the All-In Africa Conference and secretly travelled around the country preparing for the meeting. The All-In Africa Conference was held in Pietermaritzburg on 22 March and was attended by representatives from political, cultural, sports and religious organisations.
This conference was called in response to the calling of the state of the emergency. It called for countrywide demonstrations as well as the joining of all anti-apartheid forces, regardless of racial identity of the organisations involved. A full list of the resolutions can be found here. Mandela's banning order expired on the eve of the conference. Anticipating that his ban would be renewed, he went into hiding and made a dramatic appearance at the conference, where he made his first public speech since his first banning in The conference appointed him honorary secretary of the All-In African National Action Council, whose task was to organise a three day stay-at-home on 29, 30 and 31 May to coincide with the proclamation of South Africa as a Republic on 31 May.
This was the last public meeting he addressed for the next 29 years. On 3 April Mandela issued a statement on behalf of the All-in African National Action Council calling on students and scholars to support the stay-at-home campaign. Immediately after being acquitted in the Treason Trial, which had begun in , Mandela went underground. He and Sisulu secretly travelled around the country organising the strike, and Mandela nicknamed the Black Pimpernel at the time remained a fugitive for the next 17 months. Mandela called off the stay-at-home protest on its second day after massive police repression of strikers.
The failure of this action was important in changing his political thinking and he became more committed to the formation of Umkhonto we Sizwe the Spear of the Nation, also known as MK as the military wing of the ANC.
Nelson Mandela, second from left, and Robert Resha, fourth from the left, with members of the National Liberation Front in Algeria, Source: Pretoria News Library. Mandela and some of his colleagues concluded that violent resistance in South Africa was inevitable and that it was unreasonable for African leaders to continue with their policy of non-violent protest when the government met their demands with force. Mandela was appointed MK's first Commander-in-Chief.
The decision to form MK was endorsed by a secret meeting of the Congress Alliance chaired by Chief Albert Luthuli , despite the fact that Chief Luthuli was staunchly against violent resistance. This 'Bechuanaland Aerial Pipeline' had been used by other South African political refugees and freedom fighters and is examined in greater detail by Garth Benneyworth in his essay, ' Bechuanalands's Aerial Pipeline: Intelligence and Counter Intelligence Operations against the South African Liberation Movements, '.
Nelson Mandela's life and times
Once in Addis Ababa, Mandela would meet ambassadors and leaders of a variety of African political parties. Mandela's address to the conference on 3 February, a few weeks after the first sabotage attacks by MK, explained and justified the turn to violent action. The full text of his address can be read here.